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The inability of a person, animal, or plant to reproduce in a natural way is known as infertility. Typically, it is not the default state of a healthy adult, with some notable exceptions among eusocial species (mostly haplodiploid insects). Given that they have not reached puberty, the body's beginning of the reproductive process, a child or other young offspring is in this state normally.

Infertility in humans is the failure to get pregnant after a year of regular, unprotected sexual activity between a male and female partner. Infertility has a variety of causes, some of which can be treated with medical intervention. According to estimates from 1997, roughly 5% of heterosexual couples worldwide have unresolved infertility issues.

But a lot more couples—between 12% and 28%, according to estimates—experience involuntary childlessness for at least a year.

Twenty to thirty percent of cases of infertility are caused by male infertility, twenty to thirty five percent by female infertility, and twenty to forty percent by combined issues in both parts. 10–20% of the time, no cause is identified. Ovulatory issues, which typically show themselves by irregular or nonexistent menstrual cycles, are the most frequent cause of female infertility. Semen quality is utilised as a proxy indicator of male fecundity since defects in the semen are the most frequent cause of male infertility.

Before and during ovulation, fertile women have a time of fertility; the rest of the menstrual cycle, they are infertile.

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